High-resolution TEM (HRTEM)
High-resolution TEM in general refers to imaging in which lattice fringes (i.e. crystallographic planes) are observed or atomic resolution is achieved. Unlike BF or DF TEM, HRTEM images are formed from a number of diffracted beams; this multi-beam approach is known as phase-contrast imaging, and is necessary to construct an image of the crystal lattice. HRTEM provides access to much information about the sample, such as analysing crystalline defects and interfaces at the atomic scale, and observing and verifying devices, multilayers, nanoscrystals and nanostructures. The technique typically requires very thin TEM specimens free of preparation artefacts. Additionally, correct interpretation of HRTEM images may depend upon image simulation, such as that possible with JEMS software.