Microscopie électronique: Introduction

Objectives:

Basic knowledge about the main techniques of characterization and analysis of materials by electron microscopy.
Understanding how a electron microscope works.
To know what are the possibilities and limits of the different techniques:

  • The choice of the adequate characterization technique
  • Interpretation of images and results of different nature: SEM, (S)TEM, HRTEM, diffraction, EDS, EBSD
  • Solid base for a later use of an electron microscope.

Content:

Introduction

  • Principles of SEM et TEM, electron optics, aberrations, Components of an electron microscope.
  • Interaction between radiation and matter.
  • Elastic and inelastic Interaction, secondary emission, diffusion of electrons by a crystal, diffraction, Bragg condition, Ewald sphere, recall of crystallography.

SEM

  • Contrast formation (probes, SE, BSE).
  • Crystallographic analysis (EBSD).
  • Instrumentation and complementary techniques: (ESEM, Cryo-SEM, STEM, FIB).

TEM

  • Diffraction contrast in TEM (BF,DF).
  • Diffraction techniques (SAED).
  • Analyses of defects.
  • HRTEM (contrast transfer function, defocus, resolution).

Spectroscopy

  • Ionization.
  • X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS).

« Novel » microscopies

  • 3D Microscopy (tomography, reconstruction).
  • Ion Microscopy (He).

Sample preparation
 

Required prior knowledge:

  • Solid state physics.
  • Electron structure.
  • Crystallography.
  • Cristalline defects.

Prerequisite for:

  • Analysis of microstructures.
  • Surface analysis.
  • Semester project and master thesis.
  • Electron microscopy: Advanced methods.

Type of teaching:

  • Ex cathedra.
  • Demonstrations.

Form of examination:

Oral examination.